Tepe Sialk, nestled in the southwestern region of Kashan, stands as a testament to an ancient civilization dating back 8000 years. Recognized as one of the world’s oldest known civilizations, this historic site earned its place on Iran’s list of national treasures in 1931, securing the 38th spot. Offering a journey through various epochs of human civilization, including the Neolithic Age, Copper and Stone Age, Age of Urbanization, Iron Age, and the Median Period, Sialk Archeological Hills in Kashan encapsulates a treasure trove of cultural heritage.

The archaeological wonders within Tepe Sialk encompass the pioneering establishment of villages and houses, the advent of domesticated animals and plants, the inception of pottery and metal melting furnaces, and the earliest expressions of calligraphy and writing. Join us as we embark on an exploration of this magnificent historical hill.


Tepe Sialk Historical Narrative

In the years spanning 1933 to 1937, the French archaeological team, led by Roman Ghirshman, undertook the inaugural exploration of Tepe Sialk, estimating its civilization to be around 10 thousand years old. Subsequently, the site remained largely overlooked until 2001 when an Iranian archaeological team, led by Dr. Sadegh Malek Shahmirzadi, resumed investigations. Over five seasons of exploration, this interdisciplinary team unearthed new findings, notably the discovery of the Sialk Ziggurat, a place of worship eluding Girshman, the discoverer of ChoghaZanbil Ziggurat.

Following Dr. Malek Shahmirzadi’s excavations, further archaeological endeavors were spearheaded by Dr. Hasan Fazeli in 2007-2008. The insights gained from these excavations have been meticulously documented in various publications, providing an invaluable resource for enthusiasts and scholars alike.


The Enigmatic Builders of Tepe Sialk’s Ziggurat

The precise identity of Tepe Sialk’s builders remains shrouded in uncertainty due to the site’s antiquity and the intricate layers of its historical tapestry. Inhabited by various civilizations and cultures over millennia, including prehistoric, proto-Elamite, and later Elamite communities, the site’s construction is attributed to successive societies.

The proto-Elamite civilization emerges prominently in Tepe Sialk’s narrative. The Elamites, an ancient people dwelling in present-day southwestern Iran, played a pivotal role in shaping the site’s architecture and structures. The complexity of Tepe Sialk’s history suggests contributions from multiple generations and groups, reflecting the interactions of diverse societies across different epochs.


Tracing the Ages through Tepe Sialk’s Stratigraphy

Tepe Sialk’s stratigraphy unravels a history spanning over 7,000 years, providing glimpses into early settlements and the evolution of human activities. The Proto-Elamite period, flourishing around 3200-2700 BCE, stands out as a pivotal phase marked by advanced architectural feats and impeccable pottery techniques. After this era, the Elamite civilization further enriched Tepe Sialk, transforming it into a hub for trade, culture, and religious practices.


Tepe Sialk Ziggurat: A Mesopotamian Marvel in Iranian Soil

Ziggurats, iconic architectural structures synonymous with ancient Mesopotamian civilizations like the Sumerians and Babylonians, find an unexpected presence in the Iranian landscape at Tepe Sialk. These colossal stepped pyramids, adorned with multiple levels and often crowned with a temple dedicated to a goddess, served a dual purpose as religious sanctuaries and administrative hubs for city-states. The ziggurat’s design, a symbolic link between earth and sky, encapsulated the spiritual essence of these ancient societies.


Unveiling Tepe Sialk’s Historical Epochs

Archaeologists, through meticulous excavations and comprehensive studies, have categorized the artifacts of Tepe Sialk into six distinct cultural periods, spanning from Sialk 1 to Sialk 6. Let’s delve into these historical epochs, examining the remnants that have withstood the test of time.


  1. The First Period (8,000 to 7,300 years ago)

This era, tracing back 8,000 to 7,300 years, marks the inception of Tepe Sialk’s history. The first inhabitants, residing on the northern hill, lived in modest dwellings constructed from perishable materials like reeds and wood. As hunters and gatherers, they depended on the bounty of the land, hunting wild game and gathering fruits and seeds. Exhibits from this period include stone tools for hunting, the earliest handmade pottery, necklace beads, a wheat and barley grinding millstone, and a clay scythe for harvesting.


  1. The Second Period (7,200 to 6,700 years ago)

Advancing to 7,200 to 6,700 years ago, the second period witnesses the evolution of a small community into a flourishing village. Dwellings, constructed with layers of handmade clay, reflected the community’s progress. With newfound knowledge in agriculture and animal husbandry, the pottery of this period displayed elegance with black geometric and plant motifs. Artifacts from this time include clay cooking pots, spinning Sialk, and clay figurines.


  1. The Third Period (6,300 to 5,400 years ago)


Spanning 6,300 to 5,400 years ago, the third period marked the migration of Sialk inhabitants from the northern to the southern hill. Structured houses with standardized layouts emerged, featuring rooms, stoves, and niches. Notably, this era witnessed the advent of copper metal extraction and the invention of the pottery wheel. Artifacts include clay pieces adorned with animal, human, and plant patterns, along with remnants from the copper smelting process.


  1. The Fourth Period (5,300 to 4,900 years ago)

Commencing 5,300 years ago and lasting until 4,900 years ago, the fourth period witnessed population growth and expanded trade. The local ruler, known as Khan, wielded political and administrative control over Sialk during this time. Exhibit highlights encompass bowls with curved edges, clay plates, and distinctive cylindrical seals, providing insights into the socio-political dynamics of this flourishing period.


  1. The Fifth Period (3,600 to 3,000 years ago)

Approximately 3,600 to 3,000 years ago, a new wave of settlers made use of Sialk Hill. A notable feature of this era was the widespread appearance of gray pottery, interpreted by some archaeologists as indicative of the arrival of Aryan tribes in the region. Unfortunately, there are few surviving artifacts from this period, with only the foundations of some houses being unearthed, providing limited insights into the lives of these ancient inhabitants.


  1. The Sixth Period (3,000 to 2,700 years ago)

The final chapter of settlement at Sialk Hill unfolded from 3,000 to 2,700 years ago, marking the ultimate abandonment of the Sialk area. During this period, a resurgence of patterned pottery characterized by distinctive shapes and Aryan motifs, such as warriors and winged horses, gained popularity. Notable remnants from this time include a large adobe structure and the B-Sialk cemetery, situated 150 meters northwest of South Hill, housing 217 graves, with only 70 remaining in a safe and intact condition.


Tepe Sialk Pottery: Beyond Monetary Value

The pottery discovered at Tepe Sialk holds profound historical and cultural significance, transcending mere monetary considerations. These artifacts establish a profound connection with the past, offering glimpses into the customs, lifestyles, and artistic expressions of ancient civilizations. Quantifying their worth extends beyond financial metrics.

Tepe Sialk pottery sherds are revered as historical treasures, safeguarded by reputable institutions, collectors, and experts who recognize the importance of preserving our shared human heritage. While their value to researchers and enthusiasts is immeasurable, it is crucial to approach the assessment and acquisition of these artifacts with sensitivity, respecting their historical context, cultural importance, and ethical considerations associated with the antiquities trade.


Last Word

Tepe Sialk stands as an ancient puzzle, enticing curious minds to unravel its mysteries. Delving into its layers exposes tales from a bygone era when people lived in ways markedly different from our contemporary lives. The site offers clues about their dwellings, creations, and even their farewell rituals. It serves as a window into an imagined past, and with each discovery, we inch closer to understanding the secrets concealed beneath the soil. For those planning to explore Iran, a visit to the historical city of Kashan with Tepe Sialk at the forefront of their itinerary promises a captivating journey into the depths of antiquity.